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Backup Manager for MySQL, MariaDB and Percona Server (mysql_bman)

About

The MySQL Backup Manager (mysql_bman) is a wrapper script for standard MySQL backup tools. The Problem with MySQL backup tools is, that they have many options and thus are overcomplicated and errors are easy made.

mysql_bman has the intention to make backups for MySQL easier and technically correct. This means it should per default not allow non-consistent backups or complain if some functions or parameters are used in the wrong way to guarantee proper backups.

In addition it has added some nice features which are missing in standard MySQL backup tools or which are only known from Enterprise backup solutions.

What mysql_bman user say about

Mathias Brem DBA@DBAOnline on LinkedIn:

Ow! Nice!
mysql backup manager is a very nice tool! Congratulations for FromDual! I made a shell script for catalog and maintained backups by xtrabackup, but mysql_bman is the best!

Xtrabackup + mysql_bman!!!!

Where to get mysql_bman

mysql_bman is a part of the MyEnv utilities.

Where can mysql_bman help you

The intention of mysql_bman is to assist you in bigger MySQL set-ups where you have to follow some backup policies and where you need a serious backup concept.

mysql_bman example

To give you an impression of the power of the MySQL Backup Manager let us have a look at a little example:

shell> mysql_bman --target=bman:secret@192.168.1.42 --type=full --mode=logical --policy=daily \
--no-compress --backupdir=/mnt/slowdisk \
--archive --archivedir=/mnt/nfsmount

With this backup method we do a logical full backup (mysqldump is triggered in the background). The backup is stored in the location for backups with the daily policy and is NOT compressed to speed up the backup by saving CPU power AND because the backup device is a de-duplicating drive. Then the backup is archived to and NFS mount.

Backup types

To achieve this we have defined different backup types:

TypeDescription
fullfull logical backup (mysqldump) of all schemas
binlogbinary-log backup
configconfiguration file backup (my.cnf)
structurestructure backup
cleanupclean-up of backup pieces older than n days
schemabackup of one or more schemas

A backup type is specified with the option --type=<backup_type>.

Backup modes

A backup can either be logical or physical. A logical backup is typically what you do with mysqldump. A physical backup is typically a physical file copy without looking into the data. That is what for example xtrabackup does.

The backup mode is specified with the option --mode=<backup_mode>. The following backup modes are available:

ModeDescription
logicaldo a logical backup (mysqldump).
physicaldo a physical backup (mysqlbackup/innobackup/xtrabackup)

Backup policies

Further we have introduced different backup policies. Policies are there to distinguish how different backups should be treated.

The following backup policies exist:

PolicyDescription
dailydirectory to store daily backups
weeklydirectory to store weekly backups
monthlydirectory to store monthly backups
quarterlydirectory to store quarterly backups
yearlydirectory to store yearly backups

For example you could plan to do a daily MySQL backup with binary logs with a retention policy of 7 days. But once a week you want to do a weekly backup consisting of a full backup, a configuration backup and a structure dump. But this weekly backup you want to keep for 6 months. And because of legal reasons you want to do a yearly backup with a retention policy of 10 years.

A backup policy is specified with the --policy=<backup_policy> option. This leads us to the retention time:

Options

The retention time which should be applied to a specific backup policy you can specify with the option --retention=<period_in_days>. The retention option means that a backup is not deleted before this amount of days when you run a clean-up job with mysql_bman.

Let us do an example:

shell> mysql_bman --type=cleanup --policy=daily --retention=30

This means that all backups in the daily policy should be deleted when they are older than 30 days.

Target

With the --target option you specify the connect string to the database to backup. This database can be located either local (all backup types can be used) or remote (only client/server backup types can be used).

A target looks as follows: user/password@host:port (similar to URI specification) whereas you can omit password and port.

Backup location, archiving, compressing and clean-up

The --backupdir option is to control location of the backup files. The policy folders are automatically created under this --backupdir location.
If you have a second layer of backup stores (e.g. tapes or slow backup drives or deduplicated drives or NFS drives) you can use the --archive option to copy your backup files to this second layer storage which is specified with the --archivedir option. For restore performance reasons it is recommended to always keep one or two generations of backups on you fast local drive. If you want to remove the backuped files from the --backupdir destination after the archive job use the --cleanup option.
If you want to omit to compress backups, either to safe time or because your location uses deduplicated drives you can use the --no-compress option.

Per schema backup

Especially for hosting companies a full database backup is typically not the right backup strategy because a restore of one specific customer (= schema) is very complicated. For this case we have the --per-schema option. mysql_bman will do a backup of the whole database schema by schema. Keep in mind: This breaks consistency among schemas!

Sometimes you want to do a schema backup only for some specific schemas for this you can use the --schema option. This option allows you to specify schemas to backup or not to backup. --schema=+a,+b means backup schema a and b. --schema=-a,-b means backup all schemas except a and b.
The second variant is less error prone because you do not forget to backup a new database.

Instance name

MySQL does not know the concept of naming an instance (mysqld). But for bigger environments it could be useful to uniquely name each instance. For this purpose we have introduced the option --instance-name=<give_it_a_name>. This instance name should be unique within your whole company. But we do not enforce it atm. The instance name is used to name backup files and later to identify the backup history of an instance in our backup catalog and to allow us to track the files for restore.

mysql_bman configuration file

Specifying everything on the command line is cumbersome. Thus mysql_bman considers a configuration file specified with the --config=<config_file> option.
A mysql_bman configuration file looks for example as follows:

policy      = daily
target      = root/secret@127.0.0.1:3306
type        = schema
schema      = -mysql
policy      = daily
archive     = on
archivedir  = /mnt/tape
per-schema  = on
no-compress = on

Simulate what happens

For the Sissies among us (as for example me) we have the --simulate option. This option simulates nearly all steps as far as possible without executing really anything. This option is either for testing some features or for debugging purposes.

Logging

If you want to track your backup history you can specify with the --log option where your mysql_bman log file should be located.

More help

A little more help you can get with the following command:

shell> mysql_bman --help

Examples

Do a full (logical = default) backup and store it in the daily policy folder:

shell> mysql_bman --target=root/secret@127.0.0.1:3306 --type=full --policy=daily

Do a full physical backup and store it in the weekly policy folder (I think this feature is not implemented yet...):

shell> mysql_bman --target=root/secret@127.0.0.1 --type=full --mode=physical --policy=weekly

Do a binary-log backup omitting the password in the target and store it in the daily policy folder:

shell> mysql_bman --target=bman@192.168.1.42:3307 --type=binlog --policy=daily

Do a MySQL configuration backup and store it in the weekly policy folder:

shell> mysql_bman --target=root/secret@127.0.0.1:3306 --type=config --policy=weekly

Do a structure backup and store it in the monthly policy folder and name the file with the instance name:

shell> mysql_bman --target=root/secret@127.0.0.1:3306 --type=structure --policy=monthly --instance-name=prod-db

Do a weekly structure backup and archive it to an other backup location:

shell> mysql_bman --target=root/secret@127.0.0.1:3306 --type=structure --policy=weekly --archive --archivedir=/mnt/tape

Do a schema backup omitting the mysql schema:

shell> mysql_bman --target=root/secret@127.0.0.1:3306 --type=schema --schema=-mysql --policy=daily --archive --archivedir=/mnt/tape

Do a schema backup only of foodmart and world and write it to their own files. Omit compressing these backups because they are located for example on deduplicated drives:

shell> mysql_bman --target=root/secret@127.0.0.1:3306 --type=schema --schema=+foodmart,+world --per-schema --policy=daily --no-compress