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Keep your Galera Cluster up and running by all means

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We see quite often customers complaining that their Galera Cluster is not stable and "crashes" from time to time. As always one has to investigate before rating.

What comes out quite often is that the customer (or better their developers) are running huge transactions.

Databases are standardized but in detail they behave different

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For a fancy application we want to query a chunk of rows from a table and therefore we need the minimum and the maximum of the Primary Key of these rows.

VSZ behaviour with MariaDB MEMORY tables

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We recently had the situation that a customer complained about the Oom killer terminating the MariaDB database instance from time to time. The MariaDB database configuration was sized quit OK (about 50% of RAM was used for the database) but they did not have swap configured.

Traffic mirroring with MariaDB MaxScale

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Recently we had the case that a customer claimed that MariaDB 10.3 Binary Log is using 150% more space on disk than MySQL 5.7 Binary Log. Because I never observed something similar, but to be honest, I did not look to intensively for this situation, we had to do some clarifications.

First we checked the usual variables which could be candidates for such a behaviour:

MariaDB Galera Cluster Upgrade Path

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Because we conduct many customers in MariaDB Galera Cluster upgrades and because these customers sometimes have pretty old MariaDB Galera Cluster set-ups I think it is good to have a rough MariaDB Galera Cluster Upgrade Path.

For an Upgrade Path we have to consider a few things:

How to force InnoDB Buffer Pool flushing

InnoDB tries to keep pages in Buffer Pool to be fast. If a page is changed by a DML statement (INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) this change will be done in InnoDB Buffer Pool and not directly on disk. But those changed InnoDB pages residing in InnoDB Buffer Pool must be flushed sooner or later to disk to become persistent. This is done by the InnoDB background writer thread(s) (default 4).

Upgrading from MariaDB 10.4 to MariaDB 10.5 Galera Cluster

Because upgrading from MariaDB 10.4 to MariaDB 10.5 (non-clustered) seems not to be a problem [ 1 ] we take the challenge and try to create a receipt based on the MariaDB 10.3 to MariaDB 10.4 Galera Cluster upgrade documentation [ 3 ]:

Before you start

Before you begin with the upgrade you should consider a few things:

Partial Restore of a Table into a MariaDB Galera Cluster

In my former Blog Post Partial Table or Schema restore from mariabackup full backup we worked out the basics of a partial restore of a table into a MariaDB database instance.

An now we use this know-how to try the same procedure on a Galera Cluster.

The backup is done in the exact same way as described in the mentioned article. We can even use the backup made there.

For the restore we use the following procedure:

MariaDB/MySQL Datenbank-Administrator/in gesucht

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Ausschreibungszeitraum: Q4 2020 bis Q2 2021. Später bitte nicht mehr melden.

Einer unserer Kunden sucht eine/n erfahrene/n MariaDB/MySQL Datenbank-Administrator/in. Arbeitspensum: 80 bis 100% in Festanstellung. Arbeitsort: Hauptstadt Bern (Schweiz).
Erfahrung im Betrieb von MariaDB/MySQL Datenbanken im Enterprise-Umfeld sind erforderlich sowie gute MariaDB/MySQL sowie Galera Cluster Kenntnisse notwendig. Einsatzfeld hochkritische, produktive MariaDB Galera Cluster.

Auszug aus der Original-Stellenausschreibung:

Partial Table or Schema restore from mariabackup full backup

For me it was for a long time not clear if a mariabackup full backup can be used to do partial table or schema restores. Now we faced this challenge with a customer. So time to try it out...

This test was made with MariaDB 10.5.5. So it may not work with some older MariaDB releases...


Because I do not know during the backup if I need a full or a partial restore I always want to do a full mariabackup backup!

Creating synthetic data sets for tuning SQL queries

When it comes to SQL Query tuning with customers we often get the slow running SQL query and possibly, in good cases, also the table structure. But very often, for various reasons, we do not get the data.

MyISAM locking and who is the evil?

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Yes, I know, MyISAM is deprecated and unofficially discontinued by the vendors. But we still have from time to time customers using MyISAM and even evangelize for MyISAM...

And to be honest in some cases MyISAM has even advantages (beside some huge disadvantages) over other Storage Engines (simple file copy, footprint, single-query latency, ...). But most of our customers are not aware of these advantages and are using MyISAM just because they did it since ever...

MariaDB and MySQL package holding or locking

Repositories from your favourite Linux distribution and from your favourite database software vendor get regular package updates. If you do periodic system upgrades (for example every 2 weeks as we do) you get the newest packages of a release series.
Unfortunately recently the software vendors started not only to fix bugs in new releases but also to introduce new features. And when you fix bugs or introduce new stuff new bugs might appear.

MariaDB SQL Error Log Plugin

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When you are for too long in business you think you know already everything and you are getting lazy. This happened to me again a few weeks ago. A customer asked me about the SQL Error Log Plugin. First I though he was talking about the MariaDB Error Log or the General Query Log. But then I have learned that there is something "new" I did not know yet...

FromDual Ops Center File Transfer

With the FromDual Ops Center file transfer tool you can easily upload files from your personal computer to the focmm machine, download files from the focmm machine to your personal computer or transfer files from the focmm machine to any of your database machines or between them. This feature is made for importing, exporting or transferring data from, to or between your different database instances. For example to copy a production schema to a testing database instance.

Centralized Crontab with FromDual Ops Center

One of the tools of FromDual Ops Center for MariaDB and MySQL is the centralized crontab for all of your database machines. Instead of maintaining various different crontabs on different machines you can manage them now in one place within the Ops Center.

Under the Tools menu on the left you find Crontab. Here you get a first overview of crontab jobs available:

Increase file limit of a running process

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Asking stupid questions and googling for them is fun some times...

Today I was asking myself if one could rise the file limit for a running MariaDB mysqld process online without restarting the database instance?

And I found an answer on serverfault: Set max file limit on a running process:

FromDual Performance Monitor for MariaDB 1.2.0 has been released

FromDual has the pleasure to announce the release of the new version 1.2.0 of its popular Database Performance Monitor for MariaDB and Galera Cluster fpmmm.

The FromDual Performance Monitor for MariaDB (fpmmm) enables DBAs and System Administrators to monitor and understand what is going on inside their MariaDB database instances and on the machines where the databases reside.

FromDual Performance Monitor for MySQL 1.2.0 has been released

FromDual has the pleasure to announce the release of the new version 1.2.0 of its popular Database Performance Monitor for MySQL fpmmm.

The FromDual Performance Monitor for MySQL (fpmmm) enables DBAs and System Administrators to monitor and understand what is going on inside their MySQL database instances and on the machines where the databases reside.

More detailed information you can find in the fpmmm Installation Guide.

Stupid Error Messages

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Very often I see some stupid error messages as a (power-)user. I do not know if this is because of lazy developers or managers not having enough focus on more useful error messages.

If the error messages would be more clear it would help me as a power-user to fix my problems faster and fix it possibly myself instead of asking questions or even open support cases.

That would also safe costs on the support service side if end-users would be enabled to fix their problems themself. If this is what software vendors really want...

FromDual Ops Center for MySQL and compatible databases 1.0.0 has been released

FromDual has the pleasure to announce the release of the new version 1.0.0 of its popular FromDual Ops Center focmm, a Graphical User Interface (GUI) for MySQL and compatible databases.

The FromDual Ops Center for MySQL and compatible databases (focmm) helps DBA's and System Administrators to better manage their MySQL and compatible databases farms. Ops Center makes DBA and Admins life easier!

Shutdown with MySQL 8

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On StackExchange for Database Administrators I recently have seen a question which attracted my interest.

The question puzzled me a bit because the answer seems too easy. Further the question was not so clear. An all theses factors smell dangerous...


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